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The graph will have a description with it. Just like every figure and table have. For example, Figure 5: Blah Blah Blah. You can, after describing the entire graph, write in brackets something on the lines of "chart based on hypothetical data; for illustrative purposes only".
I've seen this done with a "watermark" that says (usually) "sample data" (kind of like this, from here, though that's a table rather than a chart). Think of the "draft" watermark you sometimes see on documents; same idea. Saying something in the text (or figure caption) can be helpful, but this approach has the advantage of embedding the information ...
I've done this in a number of documents, where I state clearly that it is "illustrative" or "used to demonstrate a concept and the rough proportions of one item to another. I've found I have the least amount of confusion by stating in the paragraph just before the chart appears, and then stating in the graph somehow.
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