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13

Long lines of text can be hard to read, so doing multiple columns breaks the lines up to something more optimal.


8

You can do both. Use the tiny URL as footnote and provide an appendix/bibliography with the long URLs. Also an accompanying website could list all URLs used in the paper. Tiny URLs have the problem that they disguise usable information for the reader. They do not see immediately if you cite Wikipedia or MIT. This is of course not the case if you mention the ...


7

It was shown, by experiment, that optimal amount of text for print material is ~60 characters per column. This was calculated by the ratio between font size and leading which were picked by humans as most comfortable to process. Higher amount of characters per column interferes with brain's ability to scan through text easily, much like you need to break ...


6

The issue here is that you are referencing a written piece of work, and the URL is likely to be integral to that reference. While the shortened URL does direct you to the location of the work you are citing, the shortened URL is (with few exceptions) not the source of that reference. At best, the shortened URL points you in the direction of the work in ...


6

A lot of people find it easier to write and keep their ideas flowing when they are writing by hand. Unfortunately, as you suggest, that makes it difficult to rearrange the order in which your ideas get written down. If you decide to introduce a character earlier in the story or if you decide you need to provide more information to an earlier portion of the ...


6

There are many software options available (see Wikipedia's page on plagiarism detection), some free, and some paid. To my knowledge, one of the most commonly used commercial options available is Turnitin; there is also Turnitin's student version, WriteCheck. Another commercial option is PlagScan. These options can be somewhat expensive though; PlagScan, ...


5

I've seen this done with a "watermark" that says (usually) "sample data" (kind of like this, from here, though that's a table rather than a chart). Think of the "draft" watermark you sometimes see on documents; same idea. Saying something in the text (or figure caption) can be helpful, but this approach has the advantage of embedding the information ...


5

I have heard of people using 3x5 cards with good results (in case you are not familiar with them, "3x5" cards are made of card stock that measures 3 inches by 5 inches; it can be blank or have lines); it is pretty easy to put a single thought/sentence/paragraph on one card and reorder them in a stack or lay them out on a table and move them around in two ...


5

Here's a simple tip: use a legal pad (they are a little longer than standard notebook paper), and, on the first draft, confine your writing to the middle third of the paper (or thereabouts). This scheme gives you plenty of room to rewrite the paragraph on the same page, if you want to overhaul it. It also lets you add a paragraph before (or after) the one ...


4

Chicago Style states that bibliographic list entries should be of the format: Author last name, Author first name. Title. Location of press: Press name, Year Published See here for more: http://www.isr.bucknell.edu/img/assets/6535/chicago.pdf A quick scan through my bookshelf, and I can't find a single bibliography that puts the title first before the ...


3

Design would include things like "order the data by date" or "track each author independently". Implementation would be things like an actual database schema or a routine itself. The key difference would be that design is "what I need to make happen" and implementation is "how did I make it happen".


3

When reading a plagiarized research paper turned in by a student, the signs of plagiarism may not always be obvious. However, there are some things that professors can pay special attention to when suspecting plagiarism. Observe citations throughout the paper: This will help determine whether or not the required citation style was used. For example, if the ...


3

I've done this in a number of documents, where I state clearly that it is "illustrative" or "used to demonstrate a concept and the rough proportions of one item to another. I've found I have the least amount of confusion by stating in the paragraph just before the chart appears, and then stating in the graph somehow.


3

There is always the original "cut and paste". Write your ideas out, and, if you need to move stuff around, literally cut it up, and tack it down again. Once you have got the ordering you think you want, write it all out (you can scribble on the originals too, for minor amendments). Hopefully, you will then have something much closer. You can repeat the ...


3

There's long-standing rules of thumb, and now quite good psychological research, to indicate that ease of reading requires limited line length. The rule of thumb is somewhere in the neighborhood to 43 to 60 characters per line, or around ten words per line in English. Newspaper and magazine print is usually around 10 pitch, ie, 10 characters average per ...


2

Also when writing mathematical equations, there is a tendency to have a lot of free space on the sides. Using two columns not only to make text reading more comfortable, but it also allows to make a better use of the space on the page, by reducing the white space on the side of the equations.


2

Craig knows of no "title-author" citation styles; neither do I. There is a pragmatic reason not to put the title first: since titles may be long, titles are often permitted to be shortened on second and subsequent mention. To avoid the alphabetical ordering with title-author of the references to completely change from the full version to the short ...


1

I never have maintained these sort of notebooks but have done plenty of sorting with my study notes. I suggest you use colored Post-It's and colored bookmarks. Color-code your work. Stick one on each page and write the topic on it. Identifying colors is easier than reading a huge index. And when you start with a new notebook, divide the book into sections ...


1

The graph will have a description with it. Just like every figure and table have. For example, Figure 5: Blah Blah Blah. You can, after describing the entire graph, write in brackets something on the lines of "chart based on hypothetical data; for illustrative purposes only".


1

Anything can qualify as allusion. The caveat is, it must go smoothly with the main theme, and contain another, veiled message; it must have a simple main theme, which is different from the theme it alludes to. So, if your quote teaches us two different things, and your introduction is about one of them, it will allude to the other one. You can't just drop a ...


1

Your example confuses the issue just a bit. There is a difference between print documents that are available online, and online articles. In the former case you don't need to give a link at all, and when you do, you are doing it simply to make the document more accessible. In this case you can use any link shortener that you like. The url is irrelevant to ...


1

The person or group for which you're writing the bibliography probably has a required style, so you should go by that. I'm familiar with APA and MLA, and they both put the author first. You need to have the first word in the bibliography consistent with the word you use in your in-text citations (or footnotes, if you're still doing those), and most ...


1

The only source available for the 60 characters per line experiment that I could find appears to be from Tomás García Ferrari & Carolina Short done in 2002. See Test 3 in this document.


1

My guess would be that it is to counterbalance a cost-saving measure. They needed to have the words be below a certain size so they could fit more of them per page; and in that quantity a single column would just look like a big chunk of text. So the reasons are two-fold; one, they reduce the size of the words to save costs by using fewer pages, and two, ...



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