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I think the answer has to come from who your characters are, and why they are using slang. Essentially slang is an in-group word-game. It's a way of distinguishing insiders from outsiders. It can also be a low-key form of resistance to authority. So it depends on your group. Techie slang is filled with acronyms and shortenings. It's a way of showing ...
Joseph Conrad learned English in his twenties. Sources: wikipedia e-notes
Just look how real life slangs form, there are some common patterns. To name a few: Portmanteaus and clipping: fan fiction -> fanfic -> fic, software -> warez. Abbreviations and acronyms made into words: Product End of Life -> "they EOLed the product, we have to upgrade now". Complex concepts replaced with references: "if you get caught, they will 94 you" ...
Although I can remember as a teenager spending ages learning to say words backwards to fit in with a particular group, for example 'good' becomes 'doog', I am not sure I would use that method in writing. It really annoyed outsiders at the time and I think it would annoy readers. I would focus on just coming up with one or two words that mean 'good' and ...
I would say simply pick a really specific way to change the language, and then change it that way consistently. Like with your example, it uses words that rhyme with the word they mean in English, in order to essentially create a new language. Pig Latin takes the first part of a word in English, puts it at the end and adds "-ay" as a suffix. So I would ...
You could use verlan. Words of this slang are made up by switching syllables of a word. It's not be the best method, but it can be a start.
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