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9

It's stylistic. You can use either. "Said" isn't wrong. Some writers feel very strongly about "bookisms," which is using words instead of "said" which tend to be more elaborate and give some action to speaking. (hissed, crooned, muttered, sighed, barked, laughed, snarled, grumbled) Personally I'm fine with them if they are used appropriately and ...


9

Scientific and other non-literary publications are usually required to employ standard English. Spivak pronouns are not standard English usage, so would most likely not be accepted by most publishers, unless the publication deals with questions of gender-neutral language specifically. In scientific publications the master rule for style is to write clearly ...


7

This is a complex question requiring a complex answer. What market do you aim for and what is the language of that market? If you write in English, you are obviously writing for speakers of English (because writing in English and having the book translated to your mother tongue makes no sense). But is your subject matter of interest to them? Or would you ...


6

Ask your teacher. I had one who didn't mind, and the others suggested ways to write around the problem (variously, use the "universal he," use the "universal she," alternate he and she, recast the sentence as plural). Each teacher will have different preferences. It doesn't hurt to ask upfront.


6

Because it's less intrusive. Anything you speak is something you say; "asking" is merely a more specific description of how the thing is being said. Some writing wisdom holds that using "said" is lazy/boring, but always using specific descriptors like "asked" when the questioning tone is obvious from context can be equally disruptive to the flow of ...


6

If you are writing the essay for a class in gender studies, or if the teacher is an extreme feminist, I would say yes, go ahead and use synthetic gender-neutral pronouns. If the essay is about sexism, maybe. Otherwise, no. Very few English speakers are familiar with any given proposed set of gender-neutral pronouns. There are dozens of such proposals out ...


3

Why does the message have to be in English? Messages that are meant to be understood across languages are usually encoded visually. Think of the pictograms used to direct people on airports, or the comic-book-like saftey instructions in the nets at the backs of airplane seats. Or think of making drinking gestures. If I wanted to communicate a message to ...


3

The original Tarzan book deals with this situation. His parents had several years' worth of picture and children's books, which they intended to use to educate him while they did whatever they were doing in Africa (which I forget) before they were marooned by pirates. [edit: Then they both died while Tarzan was still a baby.] So, yeah, they had a ...


3

This depends in part on who your audience is, as already noted. It also depends on what kind of editorial support you'll have and on what your goals are. I've seen lots of work, both drafts and published work, by native speakers that doesn't really measure up. English is a difficult language full of quirks and borrowings from all over the place, and I ...


3

In this case he wasn't expecting an answer. Gandalf, that is.


3

When used sparingly or in the right context, archaic language can be fun. I won't argue any literary position, but to answer the OP's question about services or rules, incase anyone (or a future visitor) is curious, this is what I found. Here are a few automated services : http://whilstr.org/ http://www.oldenglishtranslator.co.uk ...


3

The only method that I can think of that you've missed off your list is practice. Write as much as you can and put it in front of native English speakers (especially Americans, since that's the dialect you're going for, but other native English speakers probably won't hurt either). Interacting with native speakers can also help in general, so it might help ...


2

It depends what you mean by 'archaic'. For a wider cultural reference to Archaic England, see Harold Bayley's Archaic England. Halliwell's dictionary covers 14th century usage, and is particularly good on dialects. It references other works which you may find useful for other periods. Sweet's work is Anglo-Saxon in focus. There are several region-specific ...


2

Read. Read some more. Then read. Then Read some more. I have read over 200 books on my "Read" list on GoodReads and I haven't even added them all. In comparison, others have read a lot more. Read in English of course. Just read two books a month, and in a year, you will be at 24 books and in 5 years you will have 120 books. The more you fill your mind ...


2

Personally, I use and recommend singular they. It's good enough for - among others - William Shakespeare, is well known enough that a teacher will know what you're trying to do rather than thinking you've made a mistake, and (for my money at least) looks better on the page than alternating hes and shes. Not to mention the fact that we live in a ...


2

First, think of your audience, and potentially co-workers. Who will read what you write? I'm fairly adept at my native language, but still I write in English, simply because my potential English-speaking audience is roughly twenty times bigger than the local one - I write for a certain niche, which is popular in the US, not nearly so locally though. (That ...


2

I am in a similar situation, where I alternate between english and french (my native tongue). I know my english is not good enough to write an entire novel, but I often write short stories and exercise writing in both english and french. I don't know how hindi compares to english, but I assume it's pretty different in it's structure. Writing the same ...


2

I have seen books where the author prefaces the book by saying it's a translation of some other-worldly book, and then goes on to use real-world languages as a stand-in for the in-world languages. Tolkien did this to a minor degree when he used some more archaic English words for the Rohirrim, whose language was meant to be like an older form of the ...


1

I would agree with Mr. Shiny that the simplest way might be to say that they are speaking in their 'strange language,' and then just tell the reader what they said in English. For example: "I should think not," said the witch, still speaking in her strange tongue. If you do NOT want the reader to understand the witch, a made-up language would be ...


1

All German language forums for writers as well as most forums for fans and writers of specific literary genres have subforums where you can post your own work and receive critique. Use any search engine and search for either "Schriftsteller Forum" or "[your genre] Forum" (e.g. "Fantasy Forum"). A few examples: http://www.dsfo.de/ ...


1

TL;DR - Read. Learn. Write. Finish what you write. Never stop repeating the cycle. Reading Reading and writing is a cultural conversation. People write books to say something. Other people read those books and a few of those write books in return. As Rhyous has pointed out in their fine answer, you should read. You want to write books and stories and ...


1

Always think of what is best for the particular piece you are writing. Spivak pronouns are not widely accepted, used, or even recognized. Therefore they will be distracting. Unless the distracting nature of the pronouns somehow supports the argument you are making, don't use them. As other answers have illustrated, you have more options. I personally ...


1

Are we simply suggesting that any secretary will be irritated by late comers? If you are simply using the secretary as an analogy I am not sure it makes a lot of sense unless the secretary is relevant to the story...and "Like a secretary at closing time on Friday" is not really idiomatic...people can figure out the reference sure but not the same as icy ...


1

Why not write your first book in the first person POV, with the narrator a Russian? You won't have to fake the Russian "accent." One good thing about Americans: we don't mind when our language is butchered. :-) Look at how successful Chekov was as a character on Star Trek. So, you'd be writing in English (which would be good practice, no matter what) ...


1

EvilSoup is right. If you've got English grammar and spelling down--the meat and potatoes of any language--then the next step is to practice it. 'Literary' American English is so wonderfully diverse! There's really no single style and it's constantly evolving. My suggestion? Don't try to "study" and "memorize" anything--talk to Americans, ask them about ...



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