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14

In general, to convey poetic line breaks in "continuous text", replace the line break with a slash. "I've never seen a purple cow./I never hope to see one./But I can tell you anyhow,/I'd rather see than be one." I don't use Twitter so I can't say if this convention is commonly used there, but it's the normal convention in other contexts.


10

em dashes are usually used to denote an interruption or sudden change — whether in dialogue, thought or narrative — ellipses are for pauses, again in all respects. 'I just don't see why— 'I don't care what you think,' Johan barked, turning from me before I could protest. 'She was just...' His face turned pale as his memory returned to that ...


7

Germany Typographic rules (e.g. Forssman/de Jong, Detailtypographie), the most prominent, quasi-official orthographic authority (Duden), and Wikipedia all say: A punctuation mark following emphasized text (in italics, boldface, small caps, caps, letter spacing, etc.) is also emphasized. Exceptions are quotation marks and brackets, especially if only ...


7

It is called an epigraph or motto.


6

Those (and dialogue) are all quotations. The first might be quoting Sophia or an unnamed sarcastic commentator or someone else. The second quotes Genesis. The third quotes the character's anthropomorphized common sense. All quotations. So punctuate them like other quotations.


4

A postscriptum was added to a handwritten letter to avoid having to copy all of it only to add in an afterthought. When you write digitally and have the option to easily rewrite any part of your letter before you email it, a postscriptum is completely out of place. An email, especially to a person of consequence to your carreer, should be a carefully ...


4

I might use an M-dash for the whale example, because it's startling. For the gold watch, that's more of a thoughtful pause, so it would take an ellipsis. Also related on this site: Using dashes in writing dialogue and How not to overuse ellipsis?


4

Your academic department may have posted guidelines for this. For example, the Rutgers Graduate school has posted an Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Style Guide, complete with sample pages. They suggest an easy-to-read font in 10-12 point type, but other schools may have different requirements. Many schools may require that you use an existing style ...


4

Four options: Look at Wikipedia. All the footnotes are at the bottom of the page but linked to from the footnote number (and in turn linking back up to the referring anchor). Familiarize yourself with HTML to understand how in-page links work, if you need to. Link to footnote: Link from footnote back to the refering footnote number: Have clicking the ...


3

First, ask yourself if all the illustrations are necessary (i.e. are these screen captures illustrating a screen with one button on them?). The reader is going to be very annoyed having to flip back and forth between the procedure and the diagram. I don't have any links to show you for that, but I've done actual testing with users and the overwhelming ...


3

It depends on what exactly you're doing. For print the usual convention is to indent the first line of each paragraph, except for the first paragraph in a given section, with no blank line between paragraphs. This is primarily because adding in those blank lines would increase the number of pages used, and therefore make things more expensive to produce; ...


3

"Muzak" is also called elevator music. It is characterized by soft, usually slowed, instrumental versions of songs that are typically played in department stores, as hold music, or (per the name) in elevators. They are meant to be soothing and unobtrusive background sounds to avoid what could be uncomfortable silence. It is so named because the company most ...


3

For a thesis report, different academic citation systems have different styles. I am more familiar with MLA style rather than Chicago, which someone has already discussed. MLA asks that every paragraph is indented and that there are no extra lines separating paragraphs. The only exception I know of to this rule is if you have a multi-line paragraph quote ...


3

If you hold down the Shift key and press Enter it adds a line break. Apparently it won't work in some clients, but I just tried it on a tweet and it seems to work.


3

There's no universal standard for this, or at least not in fiction. Books generally pick one style and stick with it. Larger narrative breaks than a section break can be indicated by starting a new chapter. The exception is in printed books that use extra space between paragraphs to designate the end of a section, and when this happens at the end of a ...


3

Author's preference is, of course, the deciding factor, but one has to take into account readability as well. Using extra space to determine a scene change is not very common and it is possible that the reader could misinterpret it as a formatting error, or perhaps just be confused by it, whereas the three dots send a clear message that this is an ...


2

I found this at the Online Writing Lab concerning quoting poetry (emphasis added): If the quotation is three lines or longer, set it off like a block quotation (see above). Some writers prefer to set off two-line verse quotations for emphasis. Quote the poem line by line as it appears on the original page. Do not use quotation marks, and indent one inch ...


2

Unless you already have a completed manuscript, you are putting the cart before the horse. If you intend to use an agent, you'll need to see what that agent requires, which is usually a query--outline, sample chapter, synopsis, and so on. Most agents (and publishers) no longer need or want the manuscript in paper format. Each has differing requirements ...


2

Different fonts have been created for different purposes, and you should select a font depending on that purpose. Helvetica and Times, for example, are common fonts that have been created to be easily readable in print. Arial and Verdana, on the other hand, were created specifically to be easily readable on a screen. Both Arial and Verdana look ugly in ...


2

This is a matter of style and totally up to you. In most cases (period, comma) people will not see the difference. For exclamation marks and question marks it is more obvious. For me it looks better when these marks are italicized: Do you really want to eat this? On the other hand, I would never make them bold or include them into the link formatting. ...


2

You have several different options here, depending on what effect you're trying to achieve. Chat room dialogue is a little tough to work with, because it's pure dialogue, with no emotion or action or simple visibility. Oftentimes, it's enough to say something like, "Roy chatted with Samantha. 'OMG my mom's addicted to FOX news like you wouldn't ...


2

Why should the format of movie scripts from different movie making traditions be the same?!? Here is a typical Italian two column movie script: http://www.cinetecadibologna.it/imageserver/lightboxenlarge/files/biblioteca/sceneggiature/donati/photogallery/la%20grande%20caccia.jpg


2

According to Chicago, poetry or verse (which lyrics are), of more than two lines should be in block quotes. A blockquote is indented either left or right and can be further set off by being a smaller or different font. As to whether it should be italics, Chicago doesn't require it. That would seem to be a stylistic choice and, as long it is done ...


2

Small caps can become a temporary convention for something distinct but similar to normal communication. In the same way that ALL CAPS has become symbolic of shouting, other character formatting can be used to imply meaning. In many alternative fiction works, italics is used consistently to symbolize non-verbal telepathic communication. In these cases, ...


2

All caps is for shouting. Small caps could be used as a stylistic device at the beginning of a chapter to look nice, but beyond that I'm struggling to think of where they'd be appropriate. Maybe to quote a poster? For the T-shirt example, if the text on the shirt itself is not in all caps, I'd italicize it (or put it in quotes).


2

You should keep the quotation marks. If you believe that they will be distracting or disorientating to the reader, then don't take my word for it, try it yourself with an example: Look at the famous 'Heart of Darkness' by Conrad (the copyright has expired, so it is in the public domain and free to read). It consists almost exclusively of somebody on a boat ...


2

It doesn't matter if your book is 95% one person speaking. If your character is speaking aloud, and especially if you have a second person who interrupts even once a chapter, you must have punctuation indicating that someone is speaking. Also, I very strongly recommend that you don't just present your story as a wall of 95% one person speaking aloud. If ...


2

If your example is part of narration in a story, you have it written exactly right. There's no need for the acronym. "aka" the acronym originally came from law enforcement when describing someone's alias. It happens to be useful enough that it's migrated out of jargon into non-LEO usage, but you wouldn't use that acronym in running prose any more than you ...


1

As the first two Google results explain (http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Screenplay_slug_line and http://www.storysense.com/format/headings.htm), time of day will only be used where it makes sense.


1

Contrary to what the other answers claim, capitals do not need to mean shouting, but can quite simply mean that what is quoted was written in capital letters. Example: Despite this and other examples, I still stand by my comment that says to avoid all caps. The example would not have changed its meaning if it had read: In one location, Schiavone ...



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