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4

Choice 1: Move the last line and the footnote to the next page. This will leave a little blank space on the original page. If you want an even bottom margin, increase the line spacing, or move some text from the previous page to the current page, which means moving text from the page before that, etc, and reformatting the entire chapter. Choice 2: Put the ...


4

Usually you should avoid orphaned footnotes. I do not remember ever having seen a professionally published book where the footnote started on another page as the text it referred to. But this is something the publisher and their typesetter or book designer take care of. It shouldn't concern any writer, who has to hand in a plain, often even markup-free ...


3

Cheat and edit your text. Or keep combing backwards through your layout, either pushing a few lines forward or bringing a few lines back, until your footnote and the referent are on the same page.


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As Oxinabox says, if you are writing for a journal, they will almost always, if not literally always, have standards for footnotes and endnotes. Usually they'll say to follow MLA or APA or whatever style guide. Some may have their own rules. If you are writing a scholarly book, the publisher may have a specific style guide. If not, or if you are ...


2

A citation is a pointer to a source. While a URL is technically that, when universities say "citation" they mean something following a formal citation format. A citation typically includes an author, the title of the work, a publisher, and the date of publication. A URL, on the other hand, contains none of that, and if it turns into a dead link later, the ...


1

The various citation styles such as MLA and Chicago, often have a footnote style, or a defacto one -- often the same as the bibliography style. Some citation styles are by normally written as an endnote -- within the bibliography -- Eg IEEE. It very much depends on the context as to what is appropriate. In formal academic writing, eg a journal article ...


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In relation to the Feynman Lectures on Physics and his own works, Edward Tuft notes in response to Sidenotes v Footnotes: [T]here needs to be worthwhile material that naturally belongs in the margin. If the marginal materials are simply references, then the standard footnotes (at the bottom of each page, not ganged together at the end of the document) are ...



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