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In APA, if the whole book has been written by the same author(s), you always cite the whole book and give the page of the reference, thus: Reference list: Author, A. A. (1967). Title of Work. Location: Publisher. In text: ... (Author, 1967, p. xxx) ... If you cite a text in an anthology or a chapter in a textbook where every chapter has been ...


It might help to think of these phrases as signposting. Too much signposting will clutter the landscape and obscure the view. Whether that's the mountains, or the ideas in an essay, obscuring them is bad. On the other hand, judicious use of signposting can help the reader parse what you're saying. (For example, the chances are that in your mind, you ...


My colleague Rob Waters taught me the value of "right-branching sentences." Sentences work best when they begin with a subject and a verb. Additional elements can follow if needed. Ex. John Wilkes Booth shot President Lincoln in an act of cowardly treachery, then ran for his life. Not: After shooting President Lincoln in an act of cowardly treachery, John ...


Simply put: An abstract is what you did and what you found. The background is why you did it.

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