Citations are references to published or unpublished sources other than the work one is currently reading. This tag should be used when asking for proper formatting for citations or information about the ethics of citations.

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4answers
60k views

Citation in AP style journalism

I'm writing feature articles and trying to adhere to AP style, but I'm not sure how to attribute a source. I'm familiar with academic citation (APA, MLA), but have never done this in journalism. What'...
11
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2answers
6k views

Citing parts of a thesis or dissertation using IEEE referencing

I truly hope I'm not asking this question in the wrong place. I've found myself extensively referencing parts of theses and dissertations for my own research paper. [The IEEE editorial style manual][...
10
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5answers
7k views

Link shorteners for research paper citations?

I'm curious about the "properness" of using shortened links (a la bit.ly or tinyurl) in research papers. I haven't been able to find any sort of definitive reference about whether or not this is ...
9
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5answers
774 views

What's “fair use” for borrowing someone else's invented term?

Let's say I'm writing a sci-fi novel. I want to use a word which another writer has coined, which has become well-recognized outside the original book, for the name of an alien species in my story. I ...
9
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2answers
964 views

An organization writes its acronym in lower-case - do I have to, too?

I'm writing an article that includes reference to an organization - let's say National Ecological Council of Concerned Citizens - which, instead of NECOCC, uses the acronym necocc, i.e. lower-case ...
9
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1answer
6k views

How do I quote a graphic novel?

I am writing a paper for a Canadian Literature class, and want to quote portions of one of the graphic novels we studied. Do I quote the written portions as I would any other written work? I am using ...
9
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2answers
6k views

When should one use a section sign (§)?

When I asked this on English.SE, the question was closed; it was suggested that I ask on Writers.SE instead. To be clear, I mean the section sign § (utf-8: 0xC2 0xA7), which is available via \S in ...
8
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2answers
129 views

Should DOIs ever be preferred to ISBNs?

Any ISBN yields a DOI. For example, the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. has ISBN 978-0-226-10420-1, which maps to doi:10.978.226/104201, allowing any book to be digitally identified in a reference ...
8
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2answers
488 views

What is the key reference documentation and how should I cite BASH?

I originally posted this question at SO, but two users there suggested that I take it here. I am writing a scientific research paper, and I want to know if it is appropriate to cite bash, and if so, ...
7
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3answers
36k views

How to cite an entire paragraph?

How to cite an entire paragraph taken from a book? Is it just writing the paragraph as a separate one and adding (Author, Year) in the end? Will it not imply that only the last sentence in the ...
7
votes
1answer
5k views

Citing Myself As a Source

I'm writing an academic paper on ethics in robotics. I have a previous paper that I wrote and would like to use material from it. If I use the material from this paper, that I wrote, do I need to ...
6
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2answers
2k views

How to convert DOI to citation information

The DOI website will redirect to the article webpage on the journal official website. Is there is a public automated system to translate DOI to citation information? This can be beneficial for ...
6
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1answer
171 views

Punctuation-Quote or Quote-Punctuation?

I'm writing a document using the Chicago Manual of Syle. I have not access to the full guide, only to what's provided on-line. Now I wondering as to whether, in the main text itself, I should use the ...
6
votes
1answer
102 views

Least distracting method of citing in a book?

I've written a book and I'm juggling citation styles. I haven't put my bibliography together yet, but there are, I would estimate, at least 100 abstracts referenced from the National Library of ...
6
votes
3answers
2k views

What is the proper format/style for using and properly citing code in an APA paper?

I'm working on a paper that covers concurrency in Java, however to properly explain many concepts I feel code samples are basically needed. However, I don't know how to properly cite code I've ...
5
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1answer
26 views

How do I cite this page?

I am trying to cite this page in MLA: https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/obscenity Since it lists no authors, what should I put as the in-text citation. Should I use the Legal Information Institute or ...
5
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1answer
2k views

How to correctly identify publisher?

Sometimes multiple publishers and locations are listed in sequence. For example: PENGUIN CLASSICS Published by the Penguin Group Penguin Books Ltd, 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL, England ...
5
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1answer
233 views

How to cite the C# Language Specification Version 5.0

I'm currently working on my thesis and need to cite a specific section of the C# Language Specification Version 5.0. The specification is available here, but I can't find the authors and the ...
5
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1answer
1k views

How to quote from a foreign journal that has not been translated?

I need to quote from a journal written in Arabic. What should I do? Write it first in Arabic then followed by translation and indicating that it is my own translation (translated by author)? Can I ...
4
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3answers
119 views

How can I get my students to better integrate their sources into their writing?

A common problem I observe in student papers the use of source material in a sequential as opposed to an integrated fashion. For example, the first paragraph will be based on source 1, the second ...
4
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1answer
2k views

How to Cite an Author Who Has a Pen Name

If both the author's name and the pen name are known, should one cite by one name or both names? If one, which?
4
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3answers
322 views

How often to cite sources?

I'm writing a 3700-word essay, consisting of two case studies and some explanatory material. I'll be referencing a number of documents as sources for the case studies. There will be a full list of ...
4
votes
4answers
116 views

How would a source be referenced in the typical paper/book?

Let's say I have at my disposal some kind of searchable content with all the references from many books and papers. How would a source reference would be typically written/formatted? Is it dependent ...
4
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2answers
55 views

How can I include my own words within the quotation?

How can I include my own words (of an extra information) within the quotation? Can I do it in the following way, with the words in bracket being my own? To quote the words of the Buddha: “Here, ...
4
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2answers
598 views

Citing speech and interviews in biographies

I am currently writing a biography of a band, and have a question regarding citing quotes, such as from interviews. Is it necessary to cite everything a person (for example a band member or manager) ...
4
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1answer
1k views

Referencing a website using Harvard style

How can I reference a website using the Harvard style? How would this be different if no author was listed?
4
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2answers
96 views

Knowing When To Cite?

In my essay (specifically a recount essay of a moment in the past), my objective is to end with the discussion of Death as a being (because my recounted moment will be related to death). I'd like to ...
4
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1answer
19k views

Multiple MLA inline citation question

I'm familiar with the basic rules on inline citation, however, recently I've stumbled onto this problem numerous times so I thought I would ask. When using MLA style inline citations, is it legal to ...
4
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1answer
47 views

How to cite nonpersonal email

My boss cites email to him as "Private communication". I want to cite email from a subject matter expert to a number of individuals (of which I was not one in the original message). It is not ...
4
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2answers
2k views

Citing in a paper: one citation for two paragraphs?

I'm writing a short paper on macroeconomics; the professor gave us two tries, I submitted the first try, and now got my feedback. The feedback is: "The first paragraph could also deserve a reference"....
4
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2answers
56 views

citation for source from which a list of references was drawn?

I'm writing a paper in which I have reviewed a list of reports and have summarized data from each. I have cited each of those original reports. However, I originally located some of those reports ...
4
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2answers
1k views

Using ACM style, how do I cite an article without a specific author's name?

I'm using Mendeley, and trying to cite this article using ACM citation style: Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus American Diabetes Association Should the author be "N/A" or ...
4
votes
3answers
682 views

“Works” in Works Cited when there is only one source?

I am currently writing an essay on Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and I only have one source. Do I still call it a "Works Cited" page? I read this following website, but it didn't seem to help: ...
4
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1answer
74 views

How to cite literary (fiction) fragments in a naturals sciences journal?

I'm writing a grant in psychology/cognitive neuroscience. I am considering including a fragment of a book at the beginning, to illustrate the question. Regardless of whether this is a good idea, is ...
4
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1answer
127 views

Chicago- Paraphrasing a whole page from Author into 1 paragraph- what is the citation?

In a technical paper I am writing, I am taking a whole page of information and condensing it into a paragraph. I am using a mix of the authors words and my own. My question is can I cite the end of ...
4
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1answer
2k views

How are citations formatted in serious non-fiction (proposals)?

Just to be clear, I'm not talking about scholarly work of the sort that might be published by a university press. I'm talking about work by people like Goodwin, McCullough, or Larson. These kinds of ...
3
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1answer
102 views

tinyURL seen as risky by readers?

I see tinyURL recommended for news or magazine-style writing where AP style prevails--but then I see online warnings that clicking a tinyURL may take readers to sites they do not (at all) want to ...
3
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3answers
340 views

Writing a bibliography

In the formats I've seen for writing a bibliography, the author is always put first, and then the title. Are there some bibliographies where the title is put before the author?
3
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1answer
65 views

How to add difficult Web Citation?

I am writing an article and needs to be heavily cited. My statement is: Jinisys Software Inc is a partner of Cisco. Problem: Cisco website does not have a static list of partners, and instead ...
3
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1answer
160 views

Is Patent text copyrighted?

When using text from articles published in journals and magazine, we need to obtain copyright permission from the copyright owner (publisher or author). I wonder if we need copyright permission when ...
3
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1answer
273 views

Use of Registered trademark

I'm writing a book on Windows and I need some guidelines. On the cover of the book, as part of the subtitle, may I include Windows® in it? Inside the book, do I have to use the ® every single little ...
3
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1answer
389 views

Vancouver citation

I just want to confirm if I did this correct. I have this reference: G. Burg, Das Melanom, Serie Gesundheit: Piper/VCH, (1993). And, want to convert it to vancouver style. In this case, this ...
3
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2answers
205 views

Citation anniversary editions

How do I do MLA citations for an anniversary edition, e.g. 30th anniversary Selfish Gene. Do I treat it as a normal edition or just ignore that it is a new edition?
3
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2answers
69k views

Multiple Same Source Citations in the same Paragraph in MLA format?

I'm writing a paper for a Political Science class. We are allowed to use "any standard citation format", so I've decided to use MLA. My university, the University of Florida, encourages students to ...
3
votes
2answers
3k views

What is the best way to cite an anonymous writer?

When writing papers I sometimes discover texts online which are published without any kind of name attached. Often times these individuals want to be anonymous or simply do not reference themselves in ...
3
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2answers
129 views

Citing lecture notes

I am writing my thesis and using notes from different lectures on the topic as a source of sources. These notes cite other papers and present briefly the ideas, and I do use the lecture notes to find ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

how to reference facsimile (Turabian style guidelines)

I have a book that says on the copyright page: Wipf and Stock Publishers . . . Publication date: 2/23/1999 Previously published by Hunt & Eaton, 1890 It appears to be a facsimile ...
3
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1answer
32 views

Using sources multiple times in a paper in different places--how to cite

I'm writing a paper for National History Day in my Social Studies class and am using MLA formatting. It occurred to me that I had a lot of differing information from some sources, such as a historical ...
3
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1answer
215 views

How to cite information from the Human Genome Project (website)?

I want to cite some information from the Human Genome Project FAQ regarding the cost of the project (see the "How much did the Human Genome Project cost U.S. taxpayers?" header), however I'm unsure of ...
3
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2answers
154 views

What referencing style is this?

I was reading a book and I’m curious about the referencing style that is used. When you go to the reference page it is sorted by chapters and then it lists then the references for each particular ...