What is the universal format followed when we write a date in a newspaper article (for example: 24th November)? I looked around for some examples and didn't find them to be consistent. Is there any hard format at all or is it to the author's discretion? Is it different for different countries and styles, akin to how spellings vary between British English and American English?
Newspapers are perhaps the iconic manifestation of "house style." Several publications have been in print near-continuously since before we had ample standardization of grammar and formats, and are likely the source of several "American" or "British" standards.
If you're writing for an existing publication, inquire with the submission editor for the specific rules they expect of submissions, or examine their printed issues for reference.
If, instead, you're editing a newspaper and want to form a consistent style, consider purchasing the Associated Press Stylebook, which has quoted prices between $20 and $30 for various resources.
To be more clear, there is no universal style for dates, and such varies both per-country and per-publication.