From the moment they say their vows and for the next few months or so, a couple are called "newlyweds".
During the wedding, they are called the "bride and groom". A recently-married woman is sometimes referred to as "so-and-so's bride".
A couple who are soon to be married are generally called an "engaged couple". The woman is often called the "bride-to-be". I don't recall hearing a man called a "groom-to-be", but I'm sure readers would instantly know what you mean. I've heard such a couple called "fiancées", but that may be technically incorrect, as "fiancée" in the singular refers just to a woman: a man is a "fiancé".
"New wife" is a perfectly good phrase. "New husband" would also be fine.
"Newly committed lovers" is not a commonly-used phrase. "Lovers" in current English is usually understood to mean two people who have a physical relationship but are not married. The meaning has really changed over the last few decades. You might want to be careful about this: A hundred years ago to call two people "lovers" did not imply a physical relationship; today it pretty much does. So if you referred to two people as "newly committed lovers", I think most modern readers first impression would be that you mean that they are not married but have made some less formal commitment to each other. To use it for a married couple would at the least seem odd and might be confusing.