I have a theory that good prose style comes in part from avoiding complicated, abstract, and pretentious words. Are there any good lists of words to avoid, preferably with suggested alternatives? I'm thinking of lists like this one. Thank you.
I suggest that you focus instead on critiquing your own writing with the question, "Could I say this more simply? More precisely? Can I potentially cut out any words?" You could also ask someone else, whose clear and simple style you admire, to look through your writing with these questions in mind.
Sometimes the "big" words are actually better, if they convey your meaning more exactly. It's only when they obscure your actual meaning or jar with your style that you want to eliminate them.
That said, Strunk and White does list commonly misused/overused words (although their selection of "commonly overused" words is written in reference to their own time).
The language is a tool to convey more than meaning. By choosing specific words you create atmosphere, impression, differ between formal and informal, elegant versus pretentious, frank versus rude. By removing a set of words you cripple your means of expression.
And there are words that function in specific expressions and fit specific situations where simpler alternatives would be worse. There are rules that directly contradict your premise, like never use two words when one will suffice - use a more sophisticated word where you'd need to use two simpler.
Let us look at your list and see how it butchers the language:
INSTEAD OF - TRY
accomplish - carry out, do
Son, you spent past fifteen years in the university. What did you do?
accurate - correct, exact, right
This gun is correct.
This gun is exact.
This gun is right.
allocate - divide
attain - meet
I have met the rank of captain.
Don't seek lists of words to avoid. Just learn the proper use of all words and apply the right ones where they belong.