What is the name of the structure of a novel that is not in chronological order but moves between characters (viewing the same or different topic)?
I don't know any one word that encompasses both. But if a narrative is not chronological, it's anachronic, and if it follows multiple characters, it's heterodiegetic.
So maybe heterodiegetic anachrony is the term you're looking for.
Source: Gérard Genette, Narrative Discourse: An Essay in Method, trans. by Jane Lewin (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1980).
I've always called it "nonlinear multi-perspective".
Rashomon is probably the best known example of this structure in storytelling. It's a movie based on Ryunosuke Akutagawa's short story "In a Grove" (the movie's title is from another of Akutagawa's stories).